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Vaccination

Vaccination is also known as immunization. It is given to prevent certain infectious and dangerous illnesses such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B and polio. Vaccines help to create your own antibodies, so that you are capable of fighting off the diseases whenever they infect you.

One of the best way to keep your child healthy is to complete all scheduled immunizations. When children are immunized, they have antibodies and are protected from certain diseases. If they are not protected and come in contact with one of these infections, they may become very ill and experience complications, or even die.

However, vaccines only work best when they are given at the right time. The immunization schedule lists out routinely recommended ages for particular vaccines for your baby.

 Schedule of Baby's Immunization

Optional: Pneumococcal vaccin and Rotavirus vaccine

What are the diseases against which your baby is vaccinated?

1. BCG vaccine
2. Hepatitis B vaccine
3. DTP vaccine
4. Polio vaccine
5. Hib vaccine
6. MMR vaccine
7. Chicken pox vaccine
8. Hepatitis A vaccine
9. Pneumococcal vaccine (optional)
10. Rotavirus vaccine (optional)

 

1. BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccine

  • Protects against tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculosis - affects the lungs, glands, bones and brain -can cause tuberculosis meningitis (swelling of the lining of the brain in babies).
  • Redness may appear over injection site 3 to 5 days after vaccination.
  • After 2 to 3 weeks, papule (lump) appears.
  • Booster dose is given at 12 years old.

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2. Hepatitis B vaccine

  • Protects against hepatitis B infection.
  • The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes serious liver problems that can be fatal such as liver failure and liver cancer.

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3. DTP (Triple Antigen)

  • Protects against diphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and pertussis (P).
  • i) Diphtheria

    - the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria attacks the throat, mouth and nose.

    - can cause breathing to stop.

    - may lead to pneumonia, heart failure or paralysis.

    (ii) Tetanus

    - the tetanospasmin (toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria) causes muscle spasm (cramp).

    - may cause breathing muscles to go into spasm and consequently death.

    - pregnant women are given tetanus vaccinations at the 7th month of their pregnancy. This will increase the tetanus antibodies to the newborn and prevent newborn tetanus.

    (iii) Pertussis

    - also known as whooping cough.

    - the Bordetella pertussis bacteria clogs the lungs with mucus.

    - may lead to bronchitis or pneumonia.

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4. Polio vaccine

  • Protects against poliomyelitis.
  • Poliomyelitis - the poliovirus causes inflammatory of the brain and may lead to death. It can paralyze the legs and chest, making walking and breathing difficult.

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5. Hib vaccine

  • Protects against Haemophillus influenza type b (Hib) bacteria.
  • Hib causes meningitis (inflammatory of the cover that surrounds the brain) and may cause brain damage.
  • After vaccination, baby may develop fever for one day.

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6. MMR vaccine

  • Protects against measles (M), mumps (M) and rubella (R).
  • (i) Measles

    - the paramyxovirus causes high fever, cough and spotty rashes.

    - may lead to middle ear infections, pneumonia, meningitis, hearing loss, brain damage and death.

    (ii) Mumps

    - the paramyxovirus causes painful swollen of salivary glands under the jaw, fever and headache.

    - may also cause meningitis or hearing loss.

    - may attack ovaries in women and testes in men which later leading to azoospermia (no sperm) and sterility in men.

    (iii) Rubella

    - also known as German measles.

    - the rubella virus causes fever, rashes, swelling of neck glands.

  • Baby might develop slight fever after MMR vaccination.

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7. Chicken Pox (varicella) vaccine

  • Protects against chicken pox infection.
  • Chicken pox - the Varicella zoster virus causes itchy rashes and fever. It can be very severe or even life-threatening to newborns.
  • Your baby might develop fever and a few vesicles after vaccination.

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8. Hepatitis A vaccine

  • Protects against hepatitis A infection.
  • Hepatitis A - the hepatitis A virus causes jaundice (yellow skin or eyes).It also causes severe stomach pain and diarrhea and may lead to severe liver problems.
  • Prevents hepatitis infections from unhygienic food.

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9. Pneumococcal vaccine (optional)

  • Protects against pneumococcal infection.
  • Contains extracts from 7 of the commonest types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria.
  • Protects against the second commonest type of meningitis, pneumonia, bacteriaemia    ( transient presence of bacteria in the blood) and otitis media (inflammatory of middle ear).
  • Different ages require different dosages.

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10. Rotavirus vaccine (optional)

  • Protects against gastroenteritis (inflammatory of the linings of the stomach and intestine) that caused by rotavirus.
  • Gastroenteritis - may cause diarrhea, fever and vomiting. It is the commonest cause of severe diarrhea in infants and children below 5 years old. It easily spread through hand to mouth contact with the stools of an infected person.
  • 2 doses of oral vaccine which are given at least 4 weeks apart.
  • First dose is preferably given at 6 weeks old and second dose before 16 weeks old. Both 2 doses must be completed before 24 weeks old.
  • Your baby might have mild, temporary diarrhea or vomiting within 7 days after vaccination.

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